"There's less than 50% chance that the United States will exist by the middle of this century. And that is actually a good news. If the previous century was shaped by nation states as the primary actors of international law. What is very clear, at least to me is the central actors, locus of power and economy and control, is shifting from the nation state to city state. Like Singapour, Silicon Valley, Los Angeles... California in some level is independent". Saffo went on to give examples of recent decisions of Governor Schwartzenegger in direct opposition of President Bush policy: by not sending the California National Guards to protect the Mexican border or California's accord with the UK on climate change. Unthinkable! "City states are the centers because they are large enough to have impact but they are small enough that everybody sees the collective consequences of individual actions".